History

The origins of Cieplice are still uncovered. But legend says a hot spring was accidentally discovered by descendant of king Boleslaus the Wrymouth, prince Boleslaus the Tall, in 1175. While chasing a wounded deer, prince Boleslaus saw the animal drinking water from a stream, regaining its strength and managing to escape from the hunters. Prince was astonished and carefully examined the stream. He found out that the water was surprisingly warm and smelled of sulphur. Hunting lodge was built near the spring and that`s how it began...

Cieplice has been a part of Jelenia Góra for 25 years. It was a separated town before, and its origins reach II part of XIII century, when springs were already known. The name of this town was: Bad Warmbrunn (Villa Warmbrona 1288) in German, Callidus fons (1281) in Latin and Cheplevode (1318) in Polish, because of the hot springs.

There is a close connection between town and warm springs. It's mentioned even in the oldest documents, which can be found in the town archives. In 1281 prince Bernard from Lwów gave springs with the nearest area to Knights of St. John of Jerusalem from Strzegom, who were hospitallers. In 1288 in the nearest village - Malinnik (today Malinnik is a part of Cieplice along Kamienna and Wrzosówka rivers) they built an inn for ill people. Circumstances of departure of the order from Cieplice are unknown. In the II part of XIV century prince Bolko II Swidnicko - Jaworski became the new owner of Cieplice. Then reigned his sons - The Schaffgotsch Family. In 1403 founder of the family gave one of two known springs to Cistercians, who had come from Krzeszów, to settle there with the right to free use the springs. Since that time Both Schaffgotsch Family and monks were treating people. Even in XVI century numerous spa visitors from the whole Third Reich and Poland were visiting this place. Cieplice and the Czech Kingdom were in 1569 a part of Habsburgs` Monarchy. In 1569 a medician - Caspar Hoffmann examined and described thermal waters in Cieplice.Then in 1607 Caspar Schwenkfeldt - famous naturalist and doctor from Jelenia Góra did the same. Thirty-year war stopped development of the spa, but some documents from that time still remain. Second part of XVII is a time of numerous visitors from Poland, which is connected with the presence of Christopher Leopold Schaffgotsch. Among his guests were: the great Lithuanian Cancellor Albrycht Stanislaw Radziwill (1653), Zygmunt Zapolski (1654) from Wielun, prince Michal Kazimierz Radziwill (1677) and primace Michal Radziejowski (1692). But the most famous guest, who visited Cieplice was Polish queen Marysienka Sobieska, who, in 1687, came with her huge retinue. People remembered her visit for a long time. In XVII i XVIII town was famous from grinery. From 1741 Cieplice belonged to Prussia. These centuries also mean many famous visitors: Johann Wolfgang Goethe (1790), prussian king Fryderyk Wilhelm III with his wife (1800), John Quincy Adams later president of the USA (1800), Hugo Kollataj (1792 i 1808), Józef Wybicki (1802) and Izabella Czartoryska (1816).In 1812 year Schaffgotsch bought a monastery spa. Great Schaffgotschs` collections were a big attraction since II part of XIX. It was: library, armoury and ethnographic and mineral collection. But the most famous was an ornithologic cabinet which was the biggest private collection in Europe. There were few eminent ornithologists in Cieplice: Ernst Luks and his pupils - Otto Finsch (later traveller and Papua Nowa Gwinea colonizer) and Georg Martini (he made ornithological Schaffgotschs` collection). In XIX to spa came: writers Karl von Holtei and E.T.A. Hoffmann and painter Caspar David Friedrich, but from Poland Wincenty Pol and Kornel Ujejski (1847).

For the part of XIX first craft workshop existed in Cieplice, then Eugen Füllner became the owner of paper production factory. In 1902 first wood-sculpture school was established. Cieplice was also famous from annual fair called "Tallsackmarkt" , offering excellent ginger-breads. Soon before Second World War Cieplice gained civic rights, till 1975 only, when the town became part of Jelenia Góra. The town survived World War II, although it stopped its thetherapeutic activity. Later, great Schaffgotschs` collections were stolen and spa slowly lost its fame. Only the old Eugen Füllner`s factory did good business until 90s. Today the old spa, which is now only a district, not a separate town is not in good condition. We hope it will soon change...

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